Beirut is the political capital of the Lebanese Republic and its largest city. According to a 2007 statistics, it has more than two million people. It is located in the middle of the Lebanese coastline to the east of the Mediterranean Sea. Most vital facilities are concentrated in industry, commerce and services. It is an ancient and ancient city, mentioned in the letters of Tel al-Amarna dated to the fifteenth century B.C. and has since been inhabited.
Overview of the Beirut Peninsula in July 2015.
Flag of Beirut
Coat of arms of Beirut
A map of the most prominent streets and neighborhoods in Beirut.
|Title||Um Al-Sharaa, Set Al-Dunya, Paris Al-Sharq|
|History of establishment||Approximately 5,000 BC|
|capital of|| |
|area||85 km 2 (32.8 km²) km²|
|population census||between 938,940 and 2,012,000 people (2007 census)|
|population density||12,500 inhabitants/km2 (32,374.9 inhabitants/square miles)|
|Twin City|| |
Emirate of Dubai
Rio de Janeiro
|timing||EET (Eastern European Time +2 Greenwich)|
|Daylight Time||+3 Greenwich|
|Zip Code||1100 to 1109|
|official site|| |
|Beirut Photo Exhibition - Wikimedia Commons|
Beirut is the center of Lebanese political influence, where most political circles, such as parliament and prime minister, are headquartered, with most ministries and government departments. It plays a key role in the Lebanese economic movement. The city is one of the most important cultural influences in the Middle East and the Arab world because it has cultural activities such as free press, theaters, publishing houses, art exhibitions, museums and many international universities.
The city has gone through many disasters of earthquakes and wars throughout history, the most important of which was the devastating Lebanese civil war. After the war ended in 1990, the state, under the government of the then Prime Minister of Lebanon, Rafik Hariri, rebuilt and renovated the city, especially its commercial center, its maritime front and night clubs, which remade its tourism and made it an attractive tourist destination. The New York Times has given Beirut the first place on the list of places to visit in 2009, and it was ranked among the top ten most vital cities in 2009 by the Lunley Planet Tourist Guide. In 2020, Beirut was hit by another disaster, with a huge explosion in the city's port, which left tens of people dead and thousands injured and caused extensive damage to a number of neighborhoods, resulting in the displacement of 300,000 Lebanese citizens.
The 2011 Master Card index shows that Beirut ranks second in terms of tourism spending across the Middle East and Africa. Dubai ranked first, with tourists spending about $7.8 billion. Beirut followed directly with $6.5 billion, Tel Aviv with $3.8 billion, Cairo with $3.7 billion and Johannesburg with $3.3 billion. Beirut was ranked ninth among the most visited cities in the world.
The oldest mention of our arrival is in the historical documents of the name of Beirut. The word "pyrota" was pronounced in the tablets of Amarna found in Egypt, and it includes correspondence between the kings of Byblos and the pharaoh Amminovis IV, known as Akhenaten (early 14th century BC), in which the name "Perota" and the king "Monera". Phoenician ओ "ऀ" क, the Phoenician word means wells. It was said to have been called "Beretes" or "Perutos" or "Peruho" for the deity of "Beirut", the dearest deity of Lebanon and the owner of Adonis the god of Jbeil. The city was known as Perietos (Ancient Greek:η ρ β ό υ ς) in Greek literature. The name was adopted in antiquities patrols published at the American University of Beirut since 1934.
Beirut means "pine" for pine forests because it is located near a large pine forest, which is now known as the Beirut Forest or Forest, he said. Other names invited include the Beirut area: Kanaan Latakia, Julia Augustus Beretos, Derby, Reddon, Barot. The Phoenicians called it "the city of the gods" and "Beirut the Father and the Glory" for its stubbornness in the Saidon and Eastern Flower, and the Romans called it "Mother of Laws" because of the construction of the largest law institute in the empire. The Ottomans called it "the precious Dorrah." In the modern era, Nizar Qabbani held it as "the Six of the World". It was also known as "Paris the East" during the 1960s and early 1970s, during the era of economic prosperity in Lebanon.
History of Beirut
Beirut's history dates back more than 5,000 years. Archeological excavations in downtown Beirut show the diversity of the civilizations that passed through the city. Several layers of Phoenician, Hellenic, Roman, Arabic and Ottoman antiquities were found at a distance of a few distance.
Researchers and archeologists have discovered several archeological sites within the boundaries of the areas that make up the modern city of Beirut. Most of these sites contained maintenance tools dating back to the two stone eras: The old intermediate and the upper old, through the modern stone age and down to the bronze age. The most prominent sites are:
- Al-Hosn Port site: Researchers described it as a "Pyrotechnic village," and it is likely that the original site was on the beach near the East and Seoul hotels, on the French avenue locally known as the Francophone Street. The site was discovered in 1894 and was first studied by a Jesuit parent in 1900. The clay tools found on the site were described as a hysterical one, and they were kept by the Museum of Fine Arts in Lyon.
- Um Al-Khatib website: Located north of the current New Road area, a copper-era pedestal was found. The site was destroyed after it was built in 1948.
- The window furnace website: Located on the left bank of the Beirut River, the city's boundaries end. The area was previously covered with red sand, which was formed with the river that dates back to the quadruple age. A group of Jesuit parents found the site and discovered a large number of tools from the Middle Stone Age, most of which were in the sand on the bank of the river. The discoveries included about 50 pieces of Asholiniyah artifacts, which are now being held by the Lebanese Museum of Historical Artifacts.
- The Beirut River site: It was said to have occurred in a fig tree orchard on the left bank of the river near the railway line heading to Tripoli. At the site, several remains of spears, reinforced stones, and bones buried in the mud were discovered. It has been built for the time being.
In other locations, the most important of which are the sites of the Patriarchate and the Tower, the remains of old axes, and the tombs dating back to the mid-Bronze Age, were found in the latter area, prompting researchers to say that the ancient Beirut Hill, or the main human colony, was standing there.
Beirut was built by the people of Byblos four thousand years ago, and it soon grew up and became an independent kingdom on the coast that was known as Phoenicia, and its people worshipped its own god called Baal Berit, the god of Beirut, and in its name struck a coin bearing the figure of this god. The first reference to the city of Beirut dates back to the 15th century B.C., where it was mentioned in the letters of Tel El-Amarna, the cuneiform king of Berit, which sent three letters to the Egyptian Pharaoh. As Berrit mentioned in the letters of the king of Byblos, "Lord of the One". Its first settlements were built on an island in the middle of its river, which had been dumped through time.
Beirut was ruled by the Egyptians after the Pharaoh Thutmose III occupied the eastern coast of the Mediterranean Sea while expelling the Hyksos from Egypt. After the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Chaldeans and the Persians controlled Phoenicia, including Beirut, before Alexander the Great defeated the Persians and annexed the city to his empire. And in 140 BC, it was occupied and destroyed by Diodotus Trephon, the Hellenic king, during his struggle with Antiochus VII to control the throne of the Seleucid state. It was then rebuilt on the Heilianite model and was called the Phoenician Odyssey (Greek: The city is now located on the ruins of those built by Greece, as shown by excavations that were restored after the end of the civil war in 1991. The city is now located on the ruins of the ones built by Greece. The city has been α, and the excavations that were restored after the end of the civil war in 1991. One excavation from 1994 indicates that the modern Souk el Taweila is a development for an ancient Hellenic or Roman street.
Romanian General Marcus Agrippa occupied Beirut in 64 BC. He called it the “happy settlement of Julia Augustus Beretos” (Latin: Cologne Iulia Agusta Félix Berbitos), following Emperor Augustus's daughter Julia, and because of the city's importance, the Roman legions were stationed there: Fifth Macedonian, third precious, was converted into part of the Roman Empire and thus built in the Roman architectural style. Buildings, including structures, theaters, bathrooms, and stately governmental institutions, were built.
The city was known for its finest days during the time of Herod and became a full-fledged Roman city in 14 B.C.E., and was awarded the excellent Colony title. Beirut, under Roman rule, has been known for its law school, which has been teaching law for more than 300 years. During that time, it was a reference for both national and foreign students. One of its most famous human rights teachers, Papenius and Olpianos, during the rule of the Sephrene Emperors, whose work was the basis of Justinian's first law, known as "the Bandketus", was destroyed as a result of the earthquake that hit Beirut in 551 A.D., and its students were transferred to a city. Don. The earthquake killed 30,000 Peruvians and 250,000 residents of the Phoenician coast, which lost Beirut's significance during its remaining years under the Byzantine Romans.
About a hundred years after the destruction of the city, that is, during the year 635, the Arabs opened it under the leadership of Mu'awiya Bin Abi Sufyan, at the time of the succession of Omar Bin Al-Khattab, the second Rashidun Caliph, who ordered the renovation and fortifying of the city with castles to protect it from the attacks of the Romans, who tried in vain to regain it several times. During that period, Beirut was not as famous and important as the city of Akka, as a commercial center in the eastern Mediterranean.
When Mu'awiya bin Abi Sufyan rose to the position of the Islamic Caliphate, he brought to Beirut a people of the Persians and settled them there, as he did in other cities of the Levant and Baalbek. During the period of the Rashidun, Umayyad, and Abbasid Caliphs, the city belonged to Damascus and was used by Muslims in the aforementioned eras as a military base. It was then carried out by Arab armies carrying Mu'awiya on the fleet which opened the island of Cyprus during the days of Othman bin Affan. During the days of Abi Jaafar al-Mansour, the second Abbasid caliph, a number of prominent scholars appeared, most notably Abdul Rahman al-Awzai, known as the 773 Imam al-Awzai, whose grave is still near the southern coast of the sea, in an area that has become bearing his name. This grave was and remains a destination for people who visit and fabricate it. The king of the Byzantine, John Zimisaias, regained Beirut in 974 and stayed there for about a year. He was then expelled by the Egyptian forces, whom Jawhar Al-Saqli had established in the days of the Obaidi, the rulers of Egypt at that time.
The armies of the crusaders attacked Beirut in 1102, although it was not important at the time, but it did not stop them. In 1110, these armies returned the ball to it under the leadership of Godwin I and managed to occupy it. The Crusaders remained in the city until 1291, and at that time it belonged to the kingdom of Jerusalem. Its prosperity at that time depended on the movement of its trade with Europe in spices. One of the most famous crusader leaders who ruled Beirut was "John I Sayyid Ablin" (1179-1236), who renovated the city after multiple battles with Salah al-Din al-Ayoubi, and built the Al-Eblin Palace there. Salah Al-Din Al-Ayyubi regained Beirut in 1187, but returned to the Crusades about ten years later. After the Ethiopian state was replaced by the Mamluk state, the King's son, Khalil Al-Salehi, sent a large army to the city.
In 1516, Sultan Selim I of Ottoman Arabia overpowered Qunsoh Al-Ghori Sultan Al-Mamluk and eliminated him in the battle of Marj Dabiq in northern Aleppo. He continued to crawl until he occupied all the Levant. Since then, Beirut had been in the possession of the Ottoman Empire and had been the first Ottoman Governor, Muhammad Bin Karamkaqammaz (Karamkaz (Karmiz Oglu). The city was ruled by the Druze princes of Beni Assaf and Tara Bani Seva from the sixteenth century. At that time, Beirut was just a normal village, after merchants reduced and weakened industrial work and marine professions, such as fishing, shipbuilding, repair and supply of ships, either because of the proliferation of pirates in the Mediterranean at that time, or because many naval convoys were traveling around Africa by the Cape of Good Hope, discovered in the year 4 98. This has transformed the trade route with India into Lebanon instead of Lebanese ports. In the last 10 years of the sixteenth century C.E., Prince Fakhr Al-Din Bin Ma'an overpowered Prince Yusuf Bin Siva, who was governor of the city of Tripoli, Balad Keserwan, and Beirut, taking away from him the Kasrawaniya and Beirut districts and expelling the Agha from that city, which he had received from Siva. During the seventeenth century, Fakhr El Deen took great care of the city's reconstruction, which flourished and opened to Europe in his day, among the monuments he established: The tower, known as the Scout Tower, was used as a telescope to explore hostile boats attempting to raid the country, to which it is located in the Tower Square on the eastern side of the city. It is now known as the Martyrs' Square or Freedom Square. After the demise of the emirate in question, Beirut returned to follow Tripoli again.
In the late 1800s, Beirut witnessed a fierce struggle between its ruler, Prince Yusuf, and one of his followers, Ahmad Pasha, the butcher, who was trying to take over the city and was occupied by the Russian Svenskof, who was committing acts of piracy in Ottoman waters for the Empire of Russia, Catherine II. This pirate was the defender of the tower's cauldron so that he could hit the city's walls up close. The title of the "Cannon Square" has become a trademark, but the occupation of Russians ended a few months later after the city paid them a fine of 25,000 riyals in the currency of that time. The butcher returned to her, arrested his former master, Prince Yusuf al-Shihabi, with the help of the latter's nephew, Prince Bashir al-Thani al-Shehabi, known as Maltese, and executed him in 1790 in the city of Acre. During the days of Butcher, Chehabis were prevented from residing in Beirut. Their houses were demolished. The people of Mount Lebanon were also prevented from living in this city, which was installed by the governor in the city of Akka, who took his position on behalf of the state of Akka. The barrier was built around Beirut from all sides and prevented people from living outside it. The city's population dropped to 8,000 at that time, and the ban remained in force until 1832. This year, Ibrahim Pasha, Mohammed Ali Pasha, broke into it, destroyed the wall and allowed the construction of homes outside it.
Beirut remained under Egyptian rule from 1832 to 1841, the time when Levant countries remained in Ibrahim Pasha's possession. The city's population grew from 8,000 to 15,000 people on that day, due to its expansion outside the wall, which Ibrahim Pasha ordered to demolish and allowed people to build their homes in the suburbs, which later became part of the same city. Its commercial status flourished due to its selection as a quarantine center, which forced all visitors to the Levant to submit to him to ensure their health and safety infectious diseases. During the time of the Egyptians, the ruler of Beirut was the commander of the Egyptian army, Suleiman Pasha, the French. In 1841, the Ottoman Empire regained its control of the Levant, transferring the state's chair and appointing a governor, Salim Pasha, before them. During this time, Beirut began to flourish, building and housing increased. The gap trade moved to it, its status was great, and European boats came to it. During the 1860s between the Druze and the Christians, many Christian maronites took refuge in Beirut to escape the massacres in Mount Lebanon and Damascus.
During the mid-19th century, the population of Beirut increased and the city expanded beyond its walls. In the midst of this expansion, Western missionaries and Arab thinkers have created the city. It became the center of Arab culture and thought and the center of global diversity with the presence of Europeans and Americans. The water company was British and the gas supply company was French, while the Americans built schools and universities, most famously the American University in Beirut. Silk industries and trade are famous. The French also built a modern sea port in 1894 and built railways between Beirut, Damascus and Aleppo in 1907. French ships were transporting goods between Beirut and Marseilles and the French quickly became more influential than any other Western country, and in that period the people followed the Europeans in some aspects of their living and clothing. The Encyclopedia Britannica reported that the distribution of Beirut's population in 1911 was as follows: Muslims (36,000 inhabitants), Christians (77,000 inhabitants), Jews (2,500 inhabitants), Druze (400 inhabitants), Foreigners (4,100).
During World War I, famine and disease struck Mount Lebanon as a result of some harmful Ottoman measures and as a result of the course of the war. As a result, many of the mountaineers resorted to Beirut to earn a living. On October 8, 1918, the city fell from the Ottomans and fell into the hands of Allied forces led by General Edmund Allenby. The League of Nations declared Beirut subject to the French mandate with the rest of the regions of Mount Lebanon, the Bekaa and Greater Syria. The French declared it in 1920 as the capital of the great Lebanon, which became the Lebanese Republic in 1926 but won its independence only in 1943. Beirut flourished during the period of independence and became a center of cultural and economic polarization for all of its surroundings. It has become the second country, or summer resort, for many citizens of the Arab world. Beirut experienced minor unrest in 1958 during the time of President Camille Chamoun because of the conflict over the Baghdad Pact. During the 1960s, the city became known as "Paris-El-Sharq".
Years of civil war
In 1975, the Lebanese civil war broke out and divided the city into two: Eastern Christian, Western Muslim, and the uncle of the city of ruin and chaos. In 1978, the Israeli army invaded Lebanon and occupied its territory from the south to the Litani River in an operation given the name of this river by the Israeli army. The occupation in Lebanon expanded after the second Israeli aggression in 1982 to reach the outskirts of the capital and besieged it. In 1983, French and American military barracks were bombed in the city. In 1990, the situation in Lebanon stabilized, and Beirut unified, and the Al-Omran movement quickly returned to it, returning to it an important commercial and cultural center for the Arab region, once again, with tremendous efforts from former Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Al-Hariri.
After the Taif Agreement, the end of the Lebanese War, and with Prime Minister Rafiq Al-Hariri taking over the government, the reconstruction of Beirut started again in the international arena, and it started rebuilding downtown Beirut, which was built by the Solidere company, and Beirut became Paris in the east until 2005.
Rafik Hariri assassination - now
Rafiq Al-Hariri was assassinated on February 14, 2005, when an improvised explosive device (IED) planted on the St. George Gulf road where his convoy was passing exploded. The explosion resulted in extensive damage to nearby buildings, and the killing of a number of Al-Hariri's friends and a number of passers-by. Immediately after the news of Al-Hariri's death, demonstrations took place in a number of streets in Beirut. Demonstrators chanted slogans against President Emile Lahoud, Prime Minister Omar Karami, and the Syrian regime, represented by President Bashar Al-Assad. The attendees called for the departure of the existing authority and the complete withdrawal of Syrian forces before the elections, and announced a comprehensive three-day strike. The assassination of Rafiq Al-Hariri was the beginning of a series of assassinations targeting Lebanese politicians who oppose the Syrian presence in the country. Opposition political forces in downtown Beirut occupied a sit-in for two months, during which many interests were closed, until Prime Minister Omar Karami resigned, then withdrew from office, followed by the withdrawal of the Syrian army from Lebanon on April 26, under pressure from supporters of what was later known as the March 14 alliance and UN resolution 11115555 . After the withdrawal of the Syrian army, there were several political controversies between the regime and the opposition. This included an Israeli aggression in July 2006 during which the Lebanese infrastructure was destroyed.
On May 7, 2008, opposition fighters from Hezbollah, Amal Movement and the Syrian National Party took control of Beirut in response to the government's decision to dismantle the resistance communications network and to dismiss the director of Beirut International Airport. The opposition considered this decision a violation of the ministerial statement which called for supporting the resistance in the face of the Israeli occupation. The operation was followed by an agreement in the city of Doha, which led to the evacuation of the strike in downtown Beirut and restored confidence in Lebanese tourism. On October 18, 2008, Lebanon and Syria exchanged ambassadors for the first time in their history.
Beirut is located on an peninsula westward toward the Mediterranean Sea, 94 kilometers (58 miles) north of the Israeli-Lebanese border. The city is bordered to the east by the western mountain range of Lebanon; And it takes a triangular shape, because it's between and over two hills: Tel al-Ashrafieh and Tal al-Musaitbah.
The area of the Beirut Governorate is 18 km² (6.9 square miles), whereas the urban area of the city is 67 km² (26 square miles). The sea coast of Beirut is diverse. It is a rocky beach in the north of the city and a sand in the south.
The weather in Beirut is generally moderate. The Mediterranean climate is dominated by a hot, high-humidity summer, a mild spring and autumn and a cold, rainy winter. August is the hottest month of the year, with a temperature of 29°C (84°F) and the coldest January and February months, with a month's temperature of 10°C (50°F). The wind direction is western during the afternoon and evening, that is, it flows from sea to land, but at night, it changes east, from land to sea.
The annual rainfall in Beirut is 860 millimeters (34.1 inches), most of which falls during the winter months, and few fall in autumn and spring. Most of the rain falls during a limited number of days usually in a heavy form. However, the snow rarely falls in Beirut. In case it falls, it does not accumulate, except in the winter of 1920, 1942, and 1950, when three major snow storms hit Lebanon resulting in snow on the coast.
|Beirut climate data|
|Average Temperature C||57||59||63||70||73||79||82||84||82||79||68||81||71|
|mean minimum temperature||41||43||52||57||63||68||72||73||72||63||50||45||58|
|The Shower Inch||7.1||5.9||1.5||2.0||0.7||0.10||0||0||0.2||1.6||4.7||6.7||32.5|
|Average Temperature C||14||15||17||21||23||26||28||29||28||26||20||16||22|
|mean minimum temperature||5||6||11||14||17||20||22||23||22||17||10||7||15|
Districts of Beirut
Beirut is divided into 12 recognized neighborhoods:
- Al-Ashrafieh: It was known as the "Ashrafieh Farm" about 700 years ago. Some texts call it "Mazraat al-Ashrafieh", which was named after the Royal Sultan of Honor Salah al-Din Khalil. Located on the eastern Beirut plateau, it is known as a classy area.
- Ain Al-Marisa: Its name goes back to the Raiseh, the little marsa in the "Marsa" formula, any piece of the rope, and the eye is the little fountain that goes to the sea.
- Bachoura: One of the oldest areas in Beirut, whose era is advancing to the era of the Caliph Al-Mansour, is known for the presence of the Islamic cemetery in which the Nahlah of the Wall is separated from Old Beirut. Its name: The high tower that lies at the entrance of the castles and cities.
- Al-Hisn Port: It was basically called "Port of Hassan," and then it got distorted over time, and Seine was called Sadda. It is possible that it carried this name because of the presence of the Beirut Fort Tower in the region at an ancient time.
- Farm: after the old farms, most notably citrus farms of lemon and orange.
- Role: After one of the Beiruti families.
- Al-Musaitbah: The name dates back to the "Beidmar Rutbah", a wilderness outside the walls of ancient Beirut until the Mamluk were liberated from the crusaders from the Levantine coast. At that time, Sultan Salah al-Din Khalil ordered Beirut to be turned into a naval base and set out from it to regain Cyprus. Army and army commanders began to settle in the vacant area, and as time passed, a village in itself was taken over before it could join Beirut.
- Port: after the old port of the city that is still standing in this area.
- Ras Beirut: It was an impoverished region, inhabited only by some farmers who used figs and cactus. It was also called because part of it, which is the part that enters the sea, is very much like the head in its composition. The area became populated after the construction of the Syrian Evangelical College in 1865, and a number of foreign institutes and colleges. The old yachts came to it and settled there. Soon afterwards, the area attracted a number of foreigners who also intermingled with the original inhabitants of the city.
- The Sand: One of the old neighborhoods in the city was initially a popular neighborhood before it was possible to develop an aristocratic area, especially after its rebuilding at the end of the Lebanese civil war.
- Summer: This neighborhood is famous for its Arabic-style restaurants and cafes, and its old house, which dates back to the Ottoman and French eras, and its modern nightclubs.
- Tile Alley: One of the new neighborhoods in the 19th century, after the city of Beirut developed and became the capital of the state. It was also named after a long alley whose land was paved with tiles. It was an aristocratic neighborhood, inhabited by the well-to-do and Ottoman government officials, including Turks, Circassians and Armenians. Today it is a traditional, popular neighborhood. This neighborhood is characterized by its ethnic and sectarian diversity. Many of its inhabitants are of Arab roots, some of whom are Turkish, Kurdish and Armenian, and most of the population is Muslim and follow the Sunni and Shia sects. There is a Christian population that follows the Greek and Orthodox churches.
Each neighborhood is divided into multiple real estate areas. Three of Lebanon's 12 official Palestinian refugee camps are located in Beirut: Burj Al-Barajneh camp, Shatila camp, and Mar Elias camp, all of which are located in the south of the city. Of the 15 informal camps in Lebanon, one is the Sabra camp, located in Beirut, near Shatila.
Demographics of Beirut
Estimates of Beirut's population vary widely. According to some statistics, it is 938,940, while in others it is 1,303,129 and 2,012,000 for others. The absence of the correct number of Beirut's population is due to the fact that there has been no official census in Lebanon since 1932.
Beirut, like other cities in the Greater Levant, is a city with a large ethnic mix, and is featured in the names and titles of families and families currently residing there. The reason for this mix is the different peoples that passed through the Levant as a whole, some of whom settled in and intermingled with the people of the country. However, it is clear that a certain element has prevailed over the rest of the elements. The era of the Arab caliphate, including the Fatimid, Zenki, Ayyubi, Mamluk and Crusader eras, witnessed the migration and stability of many strangers in Beirut, as was the case in the era of the Ottoman Caliphate. Previous centuries and the 20th century have also witnessed many emigration from Lebanese regions to Beirut in particular.
Prior to the Islamic conquest, Beirut was inhabited by Arabs, Syriacs, and Romans. When Muslims opened the Levantine coast, the city witnessed the arrival of many military and civilian elements belonging to Arab tribes. The sons of Hazm, the sons of Mizzum, the sons of Kish, and the sons of Zidane, and the like; and many families branched out of them. The Moroccans and Andalusians began to visit the Levant and its cities during the Crusader period. Thousands of Moroccans moved from their countries to the Levant to take part in the jihad against the crusaders. Many of them were captives. Merchants, princes and Muslim authorities were keen to break up their families because of their sacrifices, given their financial contributions, their homelands in cities, and their homes in the city . A large part of them came to ask for knowledge. The majority of Moroccans and Andalusians arrived in Beirut after the fall of Andalus in 1492, following the French occupation of the Maghreb in the late nineteenth century, and the expulsion of many people with the aim of resettling French instead. The Egyptian origin of some Beiruti families is also evident by naming the city or town from which they arrived, such as: Alexandria, Rashidi, Giza, and most of the Egyptian-origin sailors arrived in the city during the Egyptian regime. As for the other Beiruti families with Arab roots, they are Iraqi, Levantine, neighboring, Hejaz and Yemeni.
Beirut and other Levant countries have experienced waves of civil and military migration in the Ethiopian, Mamluk, and Ottoman eras, especially since these promises were accompanied by the arrival of tens of thousands of combat soldiers. In addition, the rulers and authorities of these covenants used to house armies in many areas under their defense and painted them in a single color. Accordingly, during those days, Beirut was exposed to displacement and waves of residents who intermarried with old Beiruti families and fused with them. Among the most prominent of the foreigners who lived in Beirut were: Turkey, Iran, Kurds, Circassians, Albanians, Greece, and Armenians. Some of these families retain their original name, most of which have taken new names and titles such as: Isfahani, Arnaout (from Albania), Bosniak, Jerks, Morelli, Kurdi, Esmerli, etc. After the end of World War I, Beirut witnessed the arrival of soldiers from Indian Muslims who came with the British army. A few have settled in Beirut and carried the name of the “Indian” family. There is also a few rare yachts with roots in sub-Saharan Africa. These are descendants of the black slave, whose trade was active until the end of the Ottoman Empire, and Senegalese soldiers who served in the French Army during the mandate. And these people have interwoven with the battery since the early 20th century, so they've almost lost the Beiruti mixture.
Beirut is the most rich city in Lebanon in terms of religious and religious diversity, and it is also possible that the most rich cities in the Middle East will be in this diversity, as both Muslims and Christians have an active presence there. There are 9 main sects in Beirut: Sunni, Shia, Druze, Maronite, Orthodox, Roman, Catholic, Orthodox, Armenian, Armenian Catholic, Protestant. Disputes and religious or personal status cases shall be adjudicated by the competent religious judiciary for each community. The demand for civil marriage in Lebanon has so far been rejected by the heads of religious sects, but the government recognizes the civil marriage held abroad. A few Jews currently live in Beirut, but in the past, there was a relatively large percentage of Jews living in the Wadi Abu Jamil neighborhood in central Beirut. The Jewish Synagogue is still there today. The remaining Jewish monuments in Beirut include the Jewish cemetery in the eastern part of the city, where some French soldiers who served in mandatory Lebanon were also buried. Beirut residents are divided as follows: Muslim: 65% (Sunni: 80%, Shia:12%, Druze:8%), Christian:30% (Maronite:40%, Roman Orthodox:40%, Roman Catholic:12%, Armenian:8%), minorities and Jews:5%.
Prior to the war, residential neighborhoods were more mixed with different sects. Today, every part of Beirut is predominantly Christian, with East Beirut more Christian, with a Sunni minority, and West Beirut with a Sunni Muslim majority and a Christian and Shia minority. Today, the movement of Christian and Muslim residents to and from the western and eastern part of the city has returned only slightly. Beirut's southern suburbs are predominantly Shia, with a small minority of Sunnis and Christians. Beirut has had a history of political instability as a result of sectarian divisions, and religion has previously played a role in dividing Lebanese society, as evidenced by the recent civil war.
Refugees and workers
Armenians were the first refugees in Beirut in the contemporary era, and the arrival of Armenians in Lebanon began in 1915 after the massacre by the Turks. Their first place of residence was in the Karantina region and then in Bourj Hammoud, where their descendants still live. Beirut was one of the main cities in Lebanon where Palestinian refugees lived in 1948. There are also a large number of Syrians and Egyptians living in the city, most of whom work in the service and construction sectors. After the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, Lebanon provided about 100,000 Iraqis, many of whom lived in Beirut, but the government forcibly removed or imprisoned a large part of them for arriving illegally.
In addition, there are a large number of non-Arab immigrants in Beirut, such as Afghans, Iranians, and Pakistanis. In recent years, there has been an increase in the number of arrivals from Habsh, and Southeast Asian countries, such as Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia and Sri Lanka. They are usually domestic servants or offices, and some are doing their own business, such as Iranians working in general in the world carpet making.
Economic, Commercial, Industrial and Health Services
Beirut attracts Lebanese, Arab and foreign businessmen, and remittances from around the world flow to its banks. Therefore, it is the center of the Bank of Lebanon and its stock exchange, and it occupies the first banking center in the Middle East. Hence, it has taken the center of the Union of Arab Banks, assisted by the banking secrecy that Lebanon is following.
Currency and banks
The Lebanese generally used to treat the Ottoman lira in the Ottoman period, and people used to symbolize the currency as "the Ottoman" or "the Ottoman Lira," during the Egyptian rule in Lebanon (1831-1840), and in subsequent years, the Beiruti was treated in the Egyptian currency, and they used to symbolize it "in Egyptian", and from this currency has acquired money for the terms "money They are still used today in Beirut and all over Lebanon and Syria in the sense of money.
The issue was limited to the Bank of Syria and Lebanon. The bank was based in Paris, and the government of Mandatory linked the Lebanese currency to the French franc, which was then much lower. The pound made the unit of the Lebanese currency and its division into one hundred piasters. After the end of the mandate, there was an economic rupture between Lebanon and Syria on March 15, 1950, due to the differences in economic viewpoints between the two countries. This was an incentive for the Lebanese government to reorganize the state economy. In the early 1960s, it established the Bank of Lebanon, or the Central Bank, which replaced the Bank of Syria and Lebanon in issuing Lebanese cash.
After the number of banks was no more than ten after independence, the boom went up to about a hundred. In 1974, the city of Beirut was selected as the center of the Union of Arab Banks, and to encourage this economic sector, the government approved the Banking Secrecy Law in hopes of attracting large deposits from Lebanon and the Arab countries. This policy has paid off and its results appeared in the huge sums deposited at Lebanese banks in Beirut, Sometimes it's over 6 billion pounds. Beirut-based banks include: Beirut Bank, Blom Bank, Byblos Bank, Bank Auda, Bank of Lebanon and Al-Mahjar, in addition to a number of joint banks with Arab countries such as the Lebanese Kuwaiti Bank, the Lebanese Egyptian Bank, and non-Arab banks such as the Lebanese Canadian Bank.
In spite of the global economic crisis (2007 and 2009), Lebanese banks have not been significantly affected by it. Therefore, the value of the Lebanese pound has remained relatively stable, as a result of the strict procedures followed when granting loans and other payments, which were stipulated and imposed by the governor of the Bank of Lebanon, Riyad Salameh. The latter was awarded the "Best Central Bank Governor of 2009" prize for being able to prevent the negative effects of the global economic crisis on Lebanon, as he received the same award in 2006.
Beirut Stock Exchange
The Beirut Stock Exchange is the only stock market operating in Lebanon. The Beirut Stock Exchange is one of the oldest financial markets in the region, established in 1920 under the authority of the French Mandate. It was the second oldest financial market in the Arab world. In the early 1950s, the Lebanese economy was remarkably active, as industrial, banking and service companies began entering the stock market to make the Beirut Stock Exchange the best financial market in the region with the entry of about fifty companies. With the outbreak of the Lebanese events in 1975, trading activity on the Beirut Stock Exchange declined. With the deterioration of the security situation, work on the stock exchange was suspended from 1983 and did not resume until December 22, 1996, 13 years later. At the end of 2006, the Beirut Stock Exchange launched a new remote trading system that allows brokers to circulate the instruments listed on the Beirut Stock Exchange remotely from their own offices. On February 13, 2008, the Stock Exchange decided to approve the adoption of electronic "remote" trading on the Beirut Stock Exchange via the Internet, exclusively through brokerage companies accredited in the Stock Exchange. The Beirut Stock Exchange is located in the center of the commercial city, after moving its headquarters there in 2002.
Port of Beirut
Beirut is the center of one of the most important and largest ports in the eastern Mediterranean, the Port of Beirut; Its location and depth allow it to receive the largest vessels and cargo ships. It appeared that the container storage section was working and contained more than the normal number that it was supposed to contain, for more than 10 years, before studies showed that it could contain that amount. Many Lebanese banks and companies also have their headquarters in Beirut, and some of them are foreign branches.
Trade is part of the nature of Peruvians who have discovered from ancient times the importance of their port city, as a space for East-West convergence that enjoys advantages that contribute to the success of various commercial initiatives. Beirut has become a prestigious financial, commercial and industrial center that conducts all financial and banking activities, in addition to numerous other activities in the sectors of construction, trade, import, export and industry.
The Lebanese economy is concentrated in Beirut and large commercial institutions to secure services and invest in construction projects. This has provided work for many Lebanese, and has brought many consumers to Beirut. This has helped Lebanon adopt a free capitalist system and approve a banking secrecy law and expand and develop the Beirut International Airport, Beirut Port and the Free Zone in each of these vital facilities, which are considered to be the beginning of the east and an outlet for Arab consumer countries on the Mediterranean sea.
Beirut Traders Association
The Beirut Traders Association was established in 1921 and was officially recognized by an official license dated in April 1921. The main goal of the founders was to unify the efforts of merchants in Beirut, which was the foundation of Lebanese trade, to coordinate their efforts in serving their profession and to take care of the means that would protect and encourage Lebanese trade, raise its level, defend its interests and the interests of its members, work on its progress and progress in all economic aspects, find commercial projects of all types, work to strengthen Beirut's economic city, establish an office for commercial information and a club for the exchange between them and among official authorities The government to remove any injustice they face and work for anything that benefits the society in general.
66% of Lebanese industrial enterprises are based in Beirut and its suburbs due to the ease of obtaining raw materials through the port of Beirut and the availability of labor.
Beirut is the most important, well-equipped and efficient Lebanese hospital, and most of the Lebanese medical apparatus, in addition to the clinics, pharmacies and medicine depots. In the past, it was known as the Arab Hospital. After the war, it gradually returned to its prestigious position and many Arabs came to it, especially to get distinguished medical treatment. Among the most prominent hospitals in Beirut are: American University Hospital, Rizq Hospital, Hotel Dieu Hospital, Al-Maqased Hospital.
The Lebanese Parliament is located in the capital, Beirut, and the Grand Saray is the seat of government. Beirut also includes all ministries and most official departments, embassies and consulates. Beirut is one of six Lebanese provinces, and the other five are: Bekaa, North Lebanon, South Lebanon, Mount Lebanon and Nabatieh.
Beirut Municipality is composed of the Municipal Council and its committees. The municipal council comprises the mayor, his deputy and the 24-member council. The Council's Committees are set up by 16 committees: Tender Committee, Finance and Administration Committee, Follow-up Committee of Municipal Council Decisions, Legal Committee, Gardens, Health and Environment Committee, Planning, Works, Properties and Acquisitions Committee, Committee on Information and Public Relations, Committee on Streets, Traffic, Lighting and Transport, Committee on Social, Cultural and Sports, and Committee of Classified Institutions. The table below contains the names of the governors of Beirut from 1936 to the present: Kamil Abbas Hamiyyeh (1936-1941), Nicola Rizkallah (1946-1952), George Assi (1952-1956), Bechor Haddad (1956-1958), Philip Paul (19-19) 960), Emile Yeni (1960-1967), Shafiq Abu Haidar (1967-1977), Mitri Al-Namar (1977-1987), George Samaha (1987-1999), Nayaf), Nayaf (1) 92.1995), Nicola Saba (1995-1999), Yacoub Al-Sarraf (1999-2005), Nassif Qaloush (2005-2014), and Ziad Shabib (2014 -).
Some international organizations are based in Beirut, including the United Nations Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) based in downtown Beirut. There are also regional offices in the city for the International Labor Organization (ILO) and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), which cover the entire Arab world. In addition, the headquarters of the Arab Air Transport Association (ACO) is also located in Beirut.
Beirut has a number of private schools, the most famous of which are: International College College, Beirut (International College in Beirut, IC), Louis Fagman College, American Community School in Beirut, Rawda High School, Orthodox School, French Protestant College (French: Collaj Protect Français, School of the Holy Heart - Gemmayze (French: Collège du Sacré-Coeur Gemmayzé, French-Lebanese Grand Secondary (French: Ground Lycée Franco-Libanais). There are also some charities that are establishing private schools, such as the Islamic Charitable Association Al-Maqasid, which has established several private schools in Beirut, of which eight remain today, the most important of which is the Al-Maqasid Girls College and the Khaled Bin Al-Walid College.
The transition of a student to higher education depends on his obtaining a Lebanese baccalaureate certificate, but he also accepts French Baccalaureate because it is equal in Lebanese. The person obtains this certificate by passing the official secondary school exams. For those who have studied in art institutes, technical or vocational baccalaureate is considered an alternative to that.
Higher education in Beirut and throughout Lebanon is provided by a number of vocational institutes and institutions of ordinary education, such as university colleges, university institutions and universities. Of all these state buildings, the Lebanese University is the only official institution in the capital. All colleges and universities in Beirut and Lebanon are administered by the Ministry of Education and Higher Education. The competent minister is responsible for drafting educational programs, determining the date of official examinations, and maintaining and maintaining these institutions in general.
There are a large number of foreign students who complete their higher education in Beirut, most of whom are from the Arab Gulf, Syria and Iraq, and some from Iran and Europe. Any foreigner who wishes to pursue his higher education in Lebanon should meet the required qualifications in the Lebanese themselves. First, his secondary education certificate must be equivalent to Lebanese baccalaureate in order to be allowed to enroll in any higher education institution. Foreign students are not subject to any quota system, and the government offers scholarships within the scope of the bilateral agreements concluded with the parent state of the foreign student or the state in which the Lebanese student wishes to learn. When a Lebanese or foreign national is granted a foreign certificate, it must be approved by the Lebanese Embassy in that country and the Lebanese Foreign Ministry. Therefore, a foreigner nominated to enter the educational institution must go with himself and with the required documents to complete the registration process at the university or institute he wishes.
Beirut is the center of some of the most important and famous universities in the Middle East, such as the American University in Beirut, Saint Joseph University, the Higher Institute of Business, the Lebanese American University, and some universities and colleges of local interest, such as the Arab University of Beirut, and the American University of Science and Technology.
The architectural system in Beirut during the Ottoman era is considered one of the most beautiful features of the Beiruti, Lebanese, Arab and Ottoman heritage. The remaining Ottoman ruins, such as houses, houses, palaces, buildings, schools and mosques, are witnessing the beauty and magnificence of this heritage. For example, economic activities have been represented by commercial, industrial, and artisanal markets, such as those that have existed since the Ottoman period: Al-Asakfa market, al-Bazargan market, al-Atareen market, al-Haddadin market, and many others. The roofing of the yachts was generally modest at that time, supported by wooden bridges. They climbed up to the top floor with an inner stone staircase and handed out an outer stone. Some other houses had their staircases made of wood. to prevent air from entering homes.
In general, Beirut in the 19th century was distinguished by its roofed red brick houses placed over wooden ceilings, with large rooms with high ceilings, and a beautiful, spaced animal called the Manzol, which is now known as the saloon or reception room. The houses included religious windows, high glass holes made of colored glass, and in most of Beirut's houses were balconies on the first floor, on the top of which are glass holes made of colored glass. Rooms also included some air vents. Houses in Beirut usually included an upper room known locally as "al-Takhout" or "al-Takhita", which is usually the roof from which they climb to the roof of the house. the peanut, and the lily, and the wind, and the jasmine.
Later on, the Beiruti was affected by the European style of architecture. The Italian and French-style houses gradually spread to the city, replacing many Arab or Ottoman-style buildings. Later, as population density increased, people started building multi-story buildings, and most traditional buildings were replaced, to the extent that any neighborhood with an old Ottoman-French architecture was designated by the municipality as a "heritage neighborhood." After the civil war, Solidere rebuilt the city's devastated center, building most of the residential areas in that area on the European scale.
|Rosha rock |
The Rocha Rock is located near the coast of the area called Al Rousha, and is the most westerly place in Beirut. The Rock is a popular destination for tourists and Lebanese alike, and it is built on a beach opposite it with large numbers of restaurants and cafes. Some historians say that the word “Rocha” is rooted in the Aramaic word “Rosh” which means “head,” while others say that the name is a distortion of the word “Roché,” the French “rock.”
|Statue of the Martyrs |
The statue of martyrs, or the monument of the martyrs, is a monument standing in the center of Martyrs' Square in downtown Beirut to commemorate the Lebanese martyrs who were hanged by the Turks on May 6, 1916 on charges of conspiracy against the Ottoman Empire and dealing with its enemies, in the same arena as the statue today. They were about 16 of them: Philip and Farid Al-Khazin, Sheik Ahmed Tabara, Omar Hamad, and others.
|Sursock Palace |
The Sursock Palace, or the Sursock Museum, is a Lebanese archeological palace built by Nicolas Sarsock in 1910. Located on the plateau of the Ashrafieh neighborhood of Beirut. After his death in 1952, the palace's owner donated to the municipality of Beirut to become a modern art museum, as was mentioned in his will. The museum opened its doors to the public in 1961, and now includes a collection of Islamic art and works by a number of international and Lebanese artists.
|Mohamed Al-Amin Mosque |
The Mohamed Al-Amin Mosque, or Khatam Al-Nabeel Mosque, is the largest mosque in Beirut and Lebanon built by former Prime Minister Rafik Al-Hariri, but it was not completed until the latter's departure. The mosque is built on an area of more than 10,000 square meters. It is painted blue and has four minarets that can be seen from all over Beirut, as is the case with all Ottoman-style mosques. Opened on October 17, 2008.
|Statue of Riyad Al-Solh |
The statue of Riad Al-Solh, Lebanon's first prime minister in the era of independence, is located in downtown Beirut commercial near the United Nations headquarters in the area called Riyad Al-Solh, which was the same area that formed the Beirut border in the 19th century where the city wall was located.
|Al-Hamidiyah Clock Tower |
Al-Hamidiya Watch Tower, or the Ottoman Tower, is a building located in Najma Square near the Lebanese parliament. The clock was built during the era of Sultan Abdul Hamid II in 1897. The project was the result of the ideas of the governor of Beirut, Rashid Beik. It was the first project of its kind in Arab architectural art at the time.
|Great Mosque of Omri |
The Great Omari Mosque is one of the oldest mosques in Beirut and Lebanon, and it was named in honor of Omar Bin Al-Khattab. It was originally a pagan temple and a temple built by Roman Emperor Philip in the third century BC. It then turned into a military fortress and then became a scientific center before a church was built on its ruins during the Crusades of 1110, known as the Saint John the Baptist Church. The Muslims of the Saladin era received him from the crusaders. The building of the Governor of Beirut, Zain Al-Din Abd Al-Rahman Al-Baouni, was renewed in 764 A.H. He introduced the art of building and Islamic engineering.
|American University Park |
Located inside the campus of the American University of Beirut, the park is not intended for the public. It is part of the university, and therefore only students and professors enter it. The park is important for the city because it is the main outlet for it and is the primary source of its air, which some call the "Last Forest in Beirut". The park consists of a variety of municipal and foreign trees, such as Bengal fig, rubber tree, date palms, Lebanese rice, Aleppo pine, aerial pine, and other trees and plants.
|waterfront towers |
The Marina Towers, or the Waterfront Towers, are a large, semi-finished housing project that is located near the Beirut Marine Basin, a large residential building, a sea tower, two medium-height residential buildings, a palace, and a park. The Marina Project towers are built on an area of 7,000 square meters, and the main tower is 150 meters high, making it the tallest building in Lebanon.
|Roman Orthodox Saint Georgios Cathedral |
This cathedral was built on the ruins of the Byzantine Church, and its current construction dates back mostly to the 18th century. It was renovated by the Solidere Company after it suffered major damage during the Lebanese civil war. Inside the church is an artistic icon that is the center of it, and there are a number of other murals and icons that are also attracting people's attention. The Cathedral opens its doors to visitors every day when there is no religious rites. It is located on the southeast side of Nejmeh Square in downtown Beirut.
|Robert Mouawad Special Museum |
Robert Mouawad's private museum is located in downtown Beirut. It features a number of Eastern and Western art artifacts, rare ancient books, ceramic and ceramic pots, pieces of historical construction poles, old weapons, complicated numerator, and precious stone pieces. Built in the Eastern architectural style, the palace was built by Henry Pharaoh in 1911, near the Great Saray. It was surrounded by wooden planks from the 14th century up to the 19th.
|Pillars of the Tolerance Park |
It is a collection of Roman columns that have been erecting since the Roman era in the Levant. These pillars are located in the center of Beirut's commercial center, opposite the Al-Azariah building and near the Al-Ameen Mosque and the Maronite Cathedral of Mar Girgis. Their level is remarkably lower than the level of the public street, so that street viewers can stand at the head of the pillar. The mayor's site is also full of Islamic antiquities, including Omayyad, Abbasid, Mamluk and Ottoman antiquities, and French antiquities dating back to the mandate period. It is planned to build a park at this site alongside the pillars, which will be called the "Al-Samaan Garden", to embody the unity of the city and the coexistence of its people, especially since this site was the line separating the rival Islamic and Christian militias during the Lebanese civil war. They are to be planted with aleudses, Judean trees, olive trees, and citrus trees.
|Rafik Hariri Garden and Monument |
Rafik Hariri's Memorial Park is a square between St. George's Bay and the Intercontinental Phoenicia Hotel, at the same site where Rafik Hariri and a number of his colleagues were assassinated on February 14, 2005. Work on this park was completed in just two months, and it was opened in 2008, on the third anniversary of Hariri's death. In addition to the statue of Rafik Hariri, there is a bronze pillar that is issued every day at 12:55 - the hour of his death - the Lebanese national anthem is accompanied by the sound of the call to prayer and church bells for five minutes.
The use of means of transportation is a daily necessity for everyone living in or outside the city, even though it is small. Transportation in Beirut is divided into land, sea and air transport.
Beirut is connected to other major Lebanese cities and cities in Syria by means of buses, each with a specific road network on its way. Buses carrying passengers to northern Lebanon and Syria are based at the Charles Helou terminal in northern Beirut. In Beirut, two major companies provide transportation services to citizens: The first is the Lebanese Transportation Company (LCC), a private transportation company that provides transportation inside the city and in some suburbs. It has 10 main roads covering most of Beirut's central district. The second company, the Joint Railway and Transport Authority, is a public company with 12 main lines in the city.
In addition to the buses, which are used by a large segment of the population, especially the children of the poor, because of the low rates, taxis and bus taxis are spread in Beirut, and the latter is a much cheaper fee than the usual fare, and they are already defined in advance. They are currently 2,000 Lebanese pounds, and most people often take the taxi as a taxi, and to avoid any misunderstanding, they usually inform the driver of the place He said, "If the fare is too far, it is normal, even if it is within the city limits, it is considered a 'taxi'." Microbuses are also used to transport people from Beirut to some Lebanese towns, villages and cities.
The inauguration of the Tramawy line in Beirut was celebrated in September 1907 on the occasion of the 98th year of the Sultan's Birth, during the era of Governor Ibrahim Khalil Pasha. It was suspended in May 1964 after the government issued its decision and instead drove the buses after training motorists in driving the new cars.
The Port of Beirut is Lebanon's largest and one of the most important ports in the eastern Mediterranean. It also receives boats and commercial ships that can transport to and from Cyprus and other Lebanese ports, as well as Syrian and Egyptian ports and other neighboring ports.
Beirut's Rafik Hariri International Airport, which was recently renovated, is located in the southern suburb of the city. It was opened in 1954. During this period, it was known as the Beirut International Airport. The airport deals with 47 Arab and international airlines and 8 air cargo companies.
Beirut's present culture is a mix of diverse and diverse cultures of different peoples and civilizations that have passed through the city, including Greeks, Romans (Mediterranean basin culture), Arabs, Turks (Arab and Muslim culture), and French (European culture). The law school built in the city during the days of the Roman Empire was believed to be the world's first law school. This history of Cosmopolitan is a source of pride for the Lebanese in general and the Beroit in particular.
Beirut hosted the Francophone Summit and the Arab League in 2002, and the Albert Londer Award Ceremony, which awards distinguished Francophone journalists every year. The city also hosted Francophone games in 2009. Beirut is the 2009 UN World Book Capital, in recognition of its cultural wealth.
The Beiruti accent is one of the branches of the Lebanese dialect. It is a genuine Arabic accent whose features and characteristics are still rooted today in the Beiruti community. It is noted that the Maghrebi dialects are featured from time to time in the Beiruti dialect, especially the Tunisian dialect, the Shalouh dialect is for the inhabitants of the Alsos and the Atlas mountains in the Far Maghreb, and the Tamazarat dialect is for the inhabitants of the Mediterranean region in the north, in addition to the dialects of Algeria and Libya. Many features of the Beiruti accent have begun to disappear because of the "diverge" in speech, and with Western customs and traditions breaking into houses, streets, markets, schools, universities, and various media outlets. One characteristic of the Beiruti family dialect is: Transform the Y is Y, like: The numerator == the numerator, and converting the G to X, for example: Embarrassment = harassment, meeting = irradiance. In addition, the Gulf dialect, which moved with the Islamic conquests to the Maghreb and then returned to the Mashreq, is clear in the names of some families, such as: eyes; Any: Abou El Oyoun, from Ba Ayoun.
The Beirut National Museum is the main museum of antiquities in Lebanon and contains about 1,300 artifacts dating from the pre-historic era to the Mamluk era in the Middle Ages. In addition to the National Museum, the American University of Beirut's Museum of Antiquities is the third oldest museum in the Middle East and features a wide range of artifacts found in Lebanon and neighboring countries.
The Sursock Palace, which today has the most famous art in Beirut, is a collection of Japanese sculptures and several Islamic works. The museum also hosts temporary exhibitions during the year. Near the Grand Saray is the Robert Mouawad Museum, where the collection of Lebanese art and political hobbyists, Henry Pharaoh, features artifacts and artifacts. There is also a science museum for children, "Planet Discovery", which includes a number of exhibitions, experiments and crafts, and which provides appropriate instruction and instruction for educating children.
Beirut is the main hub in Lebanon for television companies, press releases and book publishing houses. Television channels in the city include: Lebanon Television, Lebanese Broadcasting Corporation, Future Television, MTV, Al-Jadeed, Al-Manar, ANB and NBN. Newspapers include: Al-Nahar, Al-Safir, Al-Mustaqbal, Al-Akhbar, Al-Balad, Al-Diyar, Al-Anwar, Al-Sharq, French newspaper L'Orient Le Jour and English newspaper Daily Star. Beirut is also one of the main media hubs in the Arab world, and the second is Egypt.
Beirut, along with Tripoli and Sidon, hosted the 2000 Asian Cup. There are two main football fields in the city: City Sports Stadium and Beirut Municipal Stadium. Eight football teams from the Lebanese Premier League take center stage in Beirut: Al-Najma Club (Lebanon), Al-Ansar Club, Al-Hikma, Al-Ahd, Al-Mabarrah, Al-Safa, Al-Racing Club, Beirut, and Shabab Al-Sahel. In addition, there are two basketball teams from Beirut, al-Riyadi and al-Hikma, who always participate in the Lebanese basketball league and in Arab and regional championships.
Other sports events are also taking place in Beirut, including the annual Beirut International Volleyball Championship, a weekly horse race in the city's racing field, and golf and tennis tournaments are held at the Beirut Golf Club. It recently established a rugby league in Lebanon, and three out of five teams in Beirut have taken up their clubs: AUB Wolves (AUB Wolves in Beirut), LAW Immortales (Interamerican Lebanese University), and USJ Saints (Saint Joseph University Saints). Beirut is a potential candidate to host the 2024 Summer Olympics, and a huge $1.2 billion Sannin project is expected to make Lebanon host the games.
Fashion and art
There are hundreds of art exhibitions across Beirut and its suburbs. Many Lebanese are interested in art and its production. There are about 5,000 artists who produce fine arts, and a similar number of them work in music, design, engineering, theater, films, photography, and other forms of art. Every year, hundreds of students graduate from the colleges of photography and image design from various universities in the city. Art workshops are flourishing and spread throughout Lebanon, especially in Beirut, where the artistic scene has become very rich and diverse.
In addition, fashion and fashion exhibitions are widespread throughout the city. There are always exhibitions and new fashion agencies of international designers that open and exhibit their work through different fashion programs, most notably the Arabic Fashion Channel (English: Fashion TV Arabia) . One famous fashion agency in Beirut: George Kaedi, Style Moodling, accompanied by Elie Nahhas, and Nathalie Ignes. Many international designers have opened exhibitions in Beirut, like Versace and Gosi, and many of these designers live in and around the city, like Elie Saab, the world's designer of women's clothing. The latter is famous for his designs of clothes for famous artists such as Beyonce, Gwyneth Paltrow, and Mesha Barton. He donates a Christmas tree every year to be placed in downtown Beirut. Among the famous designers who also live in Beirut is Zuhair Murad, who designed clothes for artists such as Anna Ortiz and Christina Applegate, and who also has a studio and exhibition.
Tourism in Beirut was booming until the Lebanese civil war broke out, as entertainment tourism stopped completely until the war was over. Solidere rebuilt the city's devastated center, which was now vibrant as it was before. As a result, the city's reputation as a link between the three continents, Europe, Africa and Asia, and as a gateway to the East to the West. Beirut was called "Paris El Sharq" in its early days of prosperity after independence, and some still call it this title today, due to the architectural style, archeological landmarks, markets, municipal cuisine and night life, which some people resemble in France, which would keep the tourist interested in the city during his visit to Lebanon.
One of the most important hotels in Beirut is: Albergo Hotel, Bell View Hotel, Ambassador Hotel, Movenpick Hotel and Resort, Intercontinental Venice, Commodore Hotel, Holiday N. Dions, Metropolitan Palace, etc.
Beirut ranked ninth in the list of best cities for Tourism and Entertainment magazine (English: Travel and Measure 2006, ranked behind New York and ahead of San Francisco, but this list of cities was put up and voted on before the Israeli aggression on Lebanon the same year. After things returned to normal, the number of tourists rose again. Recently, the Lunley Planet Tour Guide named Beirut the most vibrant city on earth in 2009, and the New York Times gave the city first place on the list of 44 places to visit in 2009. Some 2,000,000 Arab and foreign tourists visited Lebanon in 2009.
Flags of Beirut
A number of celebrities have left Beirut, including:
- Emilius Babenanos, a Roman lawmaker.
- Abd al-Rahman al-Awzai, a scholar and a senior imam of Sunni Muslim imams. Originally from Baalbek, he lived most of his life in Beirut, died and was buried there. His fiqh doctrine spread for a while in the Levant before receding into the tap.
- Omar Farroukh, Adeeb and Translator.
- Abdul Rahman al-Hut is a scholar and author of various Islamic religious sciences. Throughout his life, he worked in social work. He was the Head of Supervision and President of the Islamic Charitable Association of Makassed twice, and served as the Mufti of the city for four years (1905-1909). He has undertaken several charitable projects, most notably the restoration of most mosques, mosques, and corners of Beirut, and has established several Islamic schools.
- George Abyad is one of the first pioneers of Arab and Egyptian theater.
- Mounir al-Baalbaki, a lexicographer, encyclopedia and historian, has several historical and lexical works.
- Credo, a physical inventor.
- Salim Al-Hoss, former Prime Minister of Lebanon.
- Abdullah Al-Alayli, Linguists, Adeeb Musawi, and Faqih Mujadid.
- Gibran Tueni, editor-in-chief of Annahar newspaper, was one of the most prominent people demanding the Syrian army's exit from Lebanon. He was killed on December 12, 2005, and some pointed fingers at the Syrian regime and others at the Israeli Mossad.
- Ahmed Tabbara, imam and editor-in-chief of several newspapers, was a proponent of decentralized governance within the Ottoman Empire, and then called for complete independence after both federations rejected the demands. Executed on May 6, 1916.
- Mohammed Fleifel, a composer and musician, composed several Arab national songs, the most prominent of which are the Syrian, Iraqi, Egyptian and Yemeni national songs. One of his most prominent songs is: "We the Youth", "For the Sake of Glory" and "Mawtani".
- Fouad Chehab, the third president of the Lebanese Republic in the era of independence, is famous for his reforms, which have led Lebanon to prosperity and progress until he was known as "Switzerland East" in his day.
- Riad al-Solh, the first prime minister under independence, is a fighter against the French mandate. Assassination in Jordan, fingers pointed at Syrian Social Nationalist Party..
- Ibrahim Marashly, a famous Lebanese actor originally from Tripoli, lived most of his life in Beirut and died in it. He is famous for comedic roles.
- Keanu Reeves is a famous Canadian actor and a hero of the series "Matrix" (English: The Matrix, born in Beirut.
- Hassan Khaled, former Imam and Mufti of the Republic. One of those demanding the withdrawal of the Syrian army from Lebanon in order to preserve the national unity of the people of the country and the special relationship between Lebanon and Syria. He was assassinated in 1989, and fingers were pointed at the Syrian regime.
- Lebanese Prime Minister Rafik Hariri, for two consecutive sessions, is one of the most prominent Arab businessmen and one of the most famous Lebanese politicians in the post-civil war period and founder of the Future Movement. He was originally from Sidon but lived most of his life in Beirut, where he was assassinated in 2005.
- Henry Lemnes, a Belgian historian who worked in Beirut and died in it.
Beirut's sister cities are:
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- "The Beirut page in GeoNames ID". GeoNames ID. See it on November 11, 2020. mediator
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